Department of Health and Human Services, SAMHSA, Center for Substance Abuse Prevention. (2009). Identifying and Selecting Evidence-Based Interventions (Revised Guidance Document for the Strategic Prevention Framework State Incentive Grant Program). Retrieved from http://store.samhsa.gov/product/SMA09-4205
This revised guide, produced by SAMSHA’s Center for Substance Abuse Prevention, was developed to assist State and community planners in implementing SAMHSA’s Strategic Prevention Framework (SPF) for identifying and selecting evidence-based interventions to address local needs and reduce substance abuse problems. The SPF is a five step planning process developed to guide State and communities in their prevention work. The new guidance is divided into six sections that further break down best practices to implement SAMHSA’s SPF, particularly around selection of appropriate and effective evidence-based interventions.
Department of Health and Human Services, SAMHSA, National Registry of Evidence-based Programs and Practices. (2010). “Implementation: Making an Evidence-Based Program Work for You.” Retrieved from http://www.nrepp.samhsa.gov/AboutLearn.aspx
This online course, designed by SAMHSA’s National Registry of Evidence-based Programs and Practices, provides guidance around selecting and implementing publicly available prevention and treatment evidence-based programs. The course is designed to assist users in deciding how to select the best matched program for their organization’s needs and how to carry out the necessary steps for effective program implementation. The course uses a five stage model of implementation which is based on research by the National Implementation Research Network (see Fixen et al).* Resources included are commonly used terminology, glossary of terms, resource web links, and references used.
Devaney, E., Utne O’Brien, M., Resnik, H., Keister, S., & Weissberg, R. P. (2006). Sustainable schoolwide social and emotional learning (SEL): Implementation guide and toolkit. Chicago, IL: Collaborative for Academic, Social, and Emotional Learning (CASEL).
This implementation guide from CASEL was created to assist school administers and teachers in implementing high-quality, sustainable SEL programs. It includes answers to frequently asked questions by educators, a summary on school reform and organizational change research literature, school district case studies, and a model for implementation and intervention sustainability. The toolkit includes 40 tools for SEL implementation, including example mission statements, needs and resources assessment tools for schools, teacher implementation logs, sample handouts for families, and evaluation surveys.
Durlak, J. A., & DuPre, E. P. (2008). Implementation matters: A review of research on the influence of implementation on program outcomes and the factors affecting implementation. American Journal of Community Psychology, 41(3/4), 327-350.
This study, conducted by Loyola University in Chicago, evaluated the impact of implementation on program outcomes and identified significant contributing factors to the implementation process. The results of a meta-analysis of more than 500 related studies show that the level of implementation has a strong effect on program outcomes, particularly for prevention and promotion programs. The authors indicate 23 contextual factors that significantly influence implementation, most notably community setting, provider and innovation characteristics, delivery system, and the training and technical assistance support system. The authors discuss limitations to the present study and suggest future areas of research.
Elias, M. J. (2008). From model implementation to sustainability. In A. M. Blankstein, P. D. Houston, & R. W. Cole (Eds.), Sustaining professional learning communities (pp. 59-95). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
This framework was developed as a synthesis of existing program implementation and sustainability models, and provided the basis for the interview protocol with key stakeholders from model Social and Emotional Learning (SEL) programs in schools across the United States. The framework comprises three critical elements:
- Motivation and readiness to sustain the program
- An implementation system that allows for sustainability
- Validation of the program’s value
Findings from the interviews include seven themes common to successful sites, such as clear commitment and participation from key school administrators and compatibility with the school’s needs and activities.
Fixen, D. L., Naoom, S. F., Blasé, K. A., Friedman, R. M., & Wallace, F. (2005). Implementation research: A synthesis of the literature. Tampa, FL: University of South Florida, Louis de la Parte Florida Mental Health Institute, The National Implementation Research Network. Retrieved from http://www.fpg.unc.edu/~nirn/resources/publications/Monograph/pdf/Monograph_full.pdf.
This paper, produced with support from the William T. Grant Foundation, was developed in response to a lack of information about effective implementation of EBPs, as much of the previous research had focused on development of EBPs. After conducting a meta-analysis of relevant research from 1970 to 2005, the authors reached four major conclusions:
- Information dissemination and training alone are ineffective implementation methods
- Successful program implementation requires a long-term, multilevel approach
- While evidence concerning the influence of organizational and systems interactions is lacking, there is little doubt as to the importance of these relationships on effective program implementation
- The largest knowledge gap in research concerns the relationship among various agency and organization interactions affecting implementation over time
The authors offer implications for future research and recommendations for state and national policymakers.
(Note: See also a summary of this resource by the National Center for Mental Health Promotion and Youth Violence Prevention.)
Gingiss, P. L., Gottlieb, N. H., & Brink, S. G. (1994). Increasing teacher receptivity toward use of tobacco prevention education programs. Journal of Drug Education, 24(2), 163-176.
This study was based on surveys completed by first-grade teachers during the first and second year of the Smoke-Free Class of 2000 initiative. The questionnaires were used to gauge teachers’ receptivity toward implementing tobacco prevention education programs, with the underlying goal of creating a broader drug prevention education curriculum. Findings show that while 64 percent of teachers used the received education materials in the first year, 40 percent did not continue their use through the second year, and many teachers who intended to continue implementing the program never actually did so. Analysis of the survey resulted in four primary areas significantly related to receptivity and implementation:
- General receptivity to tobacco prevention education
- Personnel support for teaching tobacco prevention education
- Personal involvement in the program
- School involvement in tobacco prevention
The authors argue that as these areas were found to be predictive of initial and continued use, they can be used to guide further staff development.
Greenberg, M. T., Domitrovich, C. E., Graczyk, P. A., & Zins, J. E. (2005). The study of implementation in school-based preventive interventions: Theory, research, and practice. Promotion of Mental Health and Prevention of Mental and Behavioral Disorders, Volume 3. DHHS Pub. No. (SMA). Rockville, MD: Center for Mental Health Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Retrieved from http://casel.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/04/Implementation-VOL-31.pdf.
The third of six monographs produced by SAMHSA’s Center for Mental Health Services as part of its Promotion of Mental Health and Prevention of Mental and Behavioral Disorders campaign, this paper provides a framework for implementing EBPs in a school setting. The paper aims to fill the research gap on EBP implementation, using a theory-driven approach. Topics addressed include:
- Strategies to facilitate effective program delivery
- Seven key reasons for EBP implementation
- A summary of the history of EBPs and their implementation within the fields of education, school-based prevention, and program evaluation
- A stepwise model of school-based prevention EBP implementation with examples from two well-known EBPs (the Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies Curriculum and Life Skills Training)
The paper concludes with specific recommendations for practitioners, school personnel, researchers, program developers, funding agencies, and policymakers.
Hall, G. E., & Hord, S. M. (1987). Change in schools: Facilitating the process. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.
This book focuses on the Concerns-Based Adoption Model (CBAM), a method of understanding how individuals and organizations experience the process of change. This model provides a method, specifically geared toward practitioners and policymakers, for identifying steps in the change process, taking positive steps to facilitate change, and predicting the effects of your efforts. The book offers an overview of CBAM; a literature review on leadership for change issues; teacher perceptions of change and levels of innovation; a discussion of innovation configurations, incident interventions, and intervention taxonomy; case studies; and implications for future research.
Hord, S. M., Rutherford, W. L., Huling-Austin, L., & Hall, G. E. (1987). Taking charge of change. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
This book is based on the Concerns-Based Adoption Model (CBAM) for understanding how to implement systems change in a school setting. It offers specific diagnostic techniques for identifying and evaluating the personal and professional needs of personnel involved in implementing the change process, and provides three individual strategies for project management.
Rohrbach, L. A., D’Onofrio, C. N., Backer, T. E., & Montgomery, S. B. (1996). Diffusion of school-based substance abuse prevention programs. American Behavioral Scientist, 39(7), 919-934.
This article discusses the issues surrounding implementing empirically-based substance abuse prevention programs in schools, presents a literature review on determinants of diffusion, and discusses both strategies to increase diffusion and barriers to successful diffusion. The authors conclude by presenting the implications for future research, policy, and program practices.
Rohrbach, L. A., Graham, J. W., & Hansen, W. B. (1993). Diffusion of a school-based substance abuse prevention program: Predictors of program implementation. Preventive Medicine, 22(2), 237-260.
This study evaluated the diffusion of psychosocial-based substance abuse prevention programs in a school setting, focusing on:
- Teacher adoption, implementation, and maintenance
- Teacher characteristics associated with implementation
- The relationship between integrity of program delivery and program outcomes
- The effectiveness of teacher training and school principal involvement in increasing implementation
Districts randomly underwent either intensive or brief teacher training, and schools randomly had principal intervention or no principal interventions. Results show that during the first year, 78 percent of trained teachers implemented one or more related lessons; however, by the second year, only 25 percent had maintained implementation. A program including principal intervention increased implementation rates, but intensive teacher training was not a significant factor. Fidelity to program implementation was positively related with immediate program outcomes. Characteristics of implementers compared to non-implementers are then given. The authors conclude that further research needs to be done on how to effectively increase implementation, as results were highly variable.
* The SS/HS three-stage EBP Framework incorporates the five-stage NIRN model. EBP Stage 1: Selection corresponds to the NIRN Exploration stage. EBP Stage 2: Preparation includes the NIRN Installation stage. EBP Stage 3: Implementation includes the Initial Implementation, Full Implementation, and Program Sustainability stages of the NIRN model described in this module.